In fact the Ferrari team missed the first race of the initial Formula One championship, the 1950 British Grand Prix, due to a dispute about the “start money” paid to entrants, and debuted at the 1950 Monaco Grand Prix. Its break-out season was 1961, where the team fielded Phil Hill, Wolfgang von Trips and Ritchie Ginther driving the beautiful shark-nosed Ferrari 156, which was dominant throughout the season. Team orders have proven controversial at several points in Ferrari’s history. In 1982, at the San Marino Grand Prix, the two Ferraris were leading with Gilles Villeneuve ahead of Didier Pironi, but Villeneuve was shocked when Pironi overtook and won the race. Villeneuve’s anger at what he saw as betrayal by his teammate is often considered a major factor in his death in qualifying at the next race in Zolder, Belgium. Similar, albeit non-fatal, controversies erupted in 2002 and 2010. Ferrari has always produced engines for their own Formula One cars — winning more GPs even than the storied Ford Cosworth powerplant — and also supplies engines to other teams. In 2010 and 2011, for instance, Scuderia Toro Rosso and Sauber used Ferrari engines. Ferrari previously sold F1 engines to Minardi, Scuderia Italia SpA, Prost Grand Prix (engines badged “Acer”), Red Bull, Spyker F1 and Force India. Official Scuderia Ferrari Site.
Two years later, McLaren emerged to take center stage, with Fittipaldi driving to a World Championship. The team even managed to win the Indy 500 in the same year, duplicating the Jim Clark/Lotus feat from 1965. Its next championship GP win came in 1976 with James Hunt taking over from Fittipaldi and capturing the drivers’ championship. By the 1980s McLaren was in top form. The team merged with Ron Dennis’ Formula 2 team to form the current McLaren F1 Racing team and they began an unparalleled dominance of Formula one. A succession of top drivers over the next few years, the likes of Niki Lauda, Alain Prost and Senna, brought great results with McLaren taking championships in 1984, 1985, 1988 and 1989. Teammates Senna and Prost achieved the highest number of race wins of any pair in F1, notching up 14 between them in 1988 and 1989. The winning combination of Senna & Prost together with a class-leading new Honda engine meant that not only did they win all but one race in 1988, they also led all but 27 laps of the season, a record still unbeaten today. Official Vodaphone McLaren Mercedes Site.
Off track, Red Bull’s technical team was growing, engineers and mechanics with championship pedigree experience were recruited, among them famed designer Adrian Newey. The new technical chief had a reputation for innovation and six Constructors’ Championship titles to back it up; having taken both Williams and McLaren to the heady heights of multiple titles in the 1990s, Newey’s challenge was to do the same for a young team determined to challenge the status quo at every opportunity. Six short seasons into Red Bull’s F1 adventure Newey delivered, ensuring the team’s first victory was crowned with a 1-2 finish. Seizing on major regulation changes for the 2009 season, the designer penned a spectacular car that took six wins on its way to second behind the equally radical Brawn GP driven by Jenson Button. That innovative design — accompanied, as always, by controversy over things like blown diffusers — paved the way for Sebastian Vettel’s remarkable back-to-back World Championships, now powered by Renault, in 2010 and 2011. With a brilliant 16 season pole positions (including 12 straight) and a massive points lead, Red Bull Racing’s dominant 2011 performance exceeded even the memorable years of McLaren in 1988-89 and Williams in 1992-93. Having now scored consecutive Constructors’ titles, Red Bull continues as of this writing to keep its more established Formula One rivals decisively behind on the grid. Official Red Bull Racing Site.
Prior to the 1985 season, Frank Williams was involved in a road accident while returning from a test session at Paul Ricard circuit in France. He suffered a broken neck and would thereafter be confined to a wheelchair, while maintaining his classic British demeanor. At the 1997 British Grand Prix, Villeneuve won the team’s 100th race, making Williams one of only three teams in Formula One, alongside Ferrari and McLaren, to take the laurels in 100 races. Williams won nine Constructors’ titles in a mere 18 years (1980 to 1997), which stood as a all-time F1 record until surpassed by Ferrari in 2000. Many famous racing drivers have driven for Williams, including Jones, Finland’s Keke Rosberg, Britain’s Nigel Mansell, Damon Hill and Jenson Button, France’s Alain Prost, Brazil’s Nelson Piquet and Ayrton Senna, and Villeneuve — all of whom, with the exception of Senna and Button, captured one driving title with the team. After Williams secured the signing of Senna in 1994, Prost retired rather than partner again with his greatest rival, as Prost’s contract prohibiting the hiring of Senna covered only 1993. After Senna tragically died in a Williams car during the San Marino GP at Imola, Italy, Frank Williams, Head and chief designer Adrian Newey were all — ridiculously — accused of manslaughter. The trial finally closed in April 2007; although found responsible for Senna’s accident, Patrick Head was not arrested because the final verdict was issued after the statute of limitations had expired. Nonetheless, Williams in 2011 became the first Formula One constructor to undertake an Initial Public Offering (“flotation” in the UK), and is still the only publicly traded F1 organization. Official Williams F1 Site.
Lotus is credited with making the mid-engined layout popular for IndyCars, developing the first monocoque F1 chassis, and the integration of the engine and transaxle as chassis components. Lotus was also among the pioneers in Formula One in adding wings and shaping the undersurface of the car to create downforce, as well as the first to move radiators to the sides of the car to aid aerodynamic performance, and invented computer-controlled “active” suspension. Chapman’s quest for lightness at the cost of structural rigidity, however, has been criticized as contributing to the dark cloud of death that hung over the sport in the ’60s and ’70s. Even after Chapman’s own premature heart attack passing at age 54 in 1982, Lotus continued to be a major player in Formula One well until the late 1980s. Ayrton Senna drove for Team Lotus from 1985-87, winning twice in each season and posting 17 pole positions. However, the team’s last F1 race was in 1994, when the cars were no longer competitive, the organization demoted essentially to a backmarker and shortly thereafter dissolving into bankruptcy. Lotus won a total of 79 Grands Prix. During his own lifetime, Chapman saw Lotus overtake Ferrari as the first F1 team to achieve 50 GP victories, despite Ferrari having won their first nine years sooner. In 2010, the Team Lotus brand was reincarnated after more than a decade away from Formula One as a Malaysian-owned outfit running classic British racing green and yellow livery. But then in 2011, Renault F1 (in turn, formerly Benetton, where Michael Schumacher won his first two World Championships) was re-christened Lotus-Renault, running with virtually the same, black “JPS Lotus” colors in which Mario Andretti won the 1978 World Championship — leading to the thoroughly confusing spectacle of two teams with the Lotus moniker in the Formula One paddock. That’s now been settled — the current Lotus F1 Team races on, still clad in distinctive black and gold, led in 2013 by Kimi Räikkönen. And they’re doing rather well. Official Lotus F1 Team Site.
It took a few years, but the Indianapolis establishment also gradually realized the writing was on the wall and the days of their front-engined roadsters were numbered. Beginning with Jim Clark, who piloted a rear-engined Lotus in 1965, every winner of the Indy 500 has had the engine in the back. The revolution begun nearly a decade before by a little chain-driven, 500cc Cooper Formula 3 car was now complete. Once other F1 constructors began building rear-engined race cars, however, the practicality and intelligent construction of Cooper’s single-seaters was overtaken by more sophisticated technology from Lotus, BRM and Ferrari. Cooper fought back with a monocoque chassis in 1966, but its Maserati and then its BRM engines were not competitive. The Cooper team’s decline accelerated when John Cooper was seriously injured in a road accident in 1963 (driving a twin-engined Mini Cooper). After the death of his father, Cooper sold the team to Chipstead Motor Group in April 1965. Cooper Racing’s final F1 victory was achieved by Mexican driver Pedro Rodríguez at the 1967 South African GP in a Cooper T81. In all, Coopers participated in 129 Formula One World Championship events in nine years, winning 16 races. And the Cooper name continues in the automobile world thanks to the Mini Cooper, a popular road (and former rally) car now manufactured by BMW. GrandPrix.com Cooper Profile.